Bazaruto Archipelago National Park Fauna and Flora!
On the other hand, all species of birds, except exotic birds, have a protective status. About 186 waterfowl and terrestrial small and large species were identified in the Park. The Park represents an important stopover point for migratory birds.
The BANP has a high ichthyologic diversity. A total of 210 reef fish species were identified, with the families Labridae, Pomacentridae, Chaetodontidae and Acanthuridae being the most represented. The results of the Ichthyology Census carried out within the annual monitoring show that the herbivores of the Acanthuridae and Scaridae families are dominant in both monitored reefs, except for the case of the Lighthouse Reef in 1999, where a dominance of carnivores, especially the Lutjanidae family, was observed.
In relation to terrestrial mammals, there are not yet endemic species on any island of the archipelago. From the studies carried out between 2003 and 2006, the following species were recorded: Red Kidfish (Cephalophus natalensis); Gray kid (Sylvicapra grimmia); Suni (Neotragus moschatus), similar to gray goat; Gerboa hairy dunes (Gerbillurus tytonis); Galago senegalensis; Simango monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) and Black-faced monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)
Amphibians and Reptiles
With regard to amphibians and reptiles, all five species of sea turtles, crocodiles and all species of amphibians and lizards are included. The most detailed studies in this area are from Broadley, 1990 and 1992 cited by Dawns, 1997. About 42 terrestrial species were found in Bazaruto, 32 in Benguérua, 7 in Santa Carolina and 9 in Magaruque islands. Three reptiles are endemic to Bazaruto: Lygosoma lanceolatum; Scellottis duttoni and Zygaspis longicauda. Three subspecies of reptiles are endemic to the archipelago: Scelotes Arenicola insularis, Typhlosaurus aurantiacus bazarutoensis and Typhlosaurus aurantiacus carolinensis (all of Broadley).
The MP of 2006 identified about 7 terrestrial habitats, but for a more detailed study a greater number of classes is needed and it is proposed that in the next studies in the archipelago the following should be distinguished:
1. Savannah Prairie;
2. Herbaceous vegetation of the Marshes;
3. Perennial Bush of Dunes;
4. Vegetation of the Secondary Dunes;
5. Brenha de Matagal;
6. Bush of the Marshes; Forest of Dialium schlecthteri and Julbernadia;
7. Bush at the Base of the Dunes;
8. Pioneer vegetation in the Primary Dunes;
10. Vegetation of salt flats;
11. Sand Beaches and Dunes; and
12. Interior Ponds.
Three ecosystems are considered important in this area under the BANP:
According to DIAS (2005), seagrass carpets cover about 88 Km2 of inter-tidal zones and sub-tides to depth of 5m. Although seagrass can occur to depths of 10 m, their extent to that depth has not been quantified. In addition, several areas have not been studied, especially in the Benguérua and Magaruque Islands, which suggests that the extension of the seagrass beds in the BANP is greater than 88 Km2.
About coral reefs, in terms of distribution and biodiversity, the area they occupy is not known in the BANP, but there is basic information about their distribution. These occur mainly on the eastern shore of Bazaruto Island (from the northern tip to the reef "Two mile reef", some reefs occur within Bazaruto Bay). Outside the boundaries of the BAP, a large number of reefs occur (North and West Zone), which are important for fishing activity. Schleyer and Celliers (2005) listed 29 species of soft corals, 99 species of hard corals and 2 of corals of fire (Appendices). Of these, the Acroporidae families (26 species, 18 of the genus Acropora), Alcyoniidae (23 species), Faviidae (21 species) and Poritidae (10 species) are highlighted in terms of diversity.
Nine species of seagrass were identified in the area (Mafambissa, 2002; Dias, 2005; Findlay et al., 2006), namely: Thalassondendron ciliatum, Cymodocea rotundata, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprinchii, Syringodium isoetifolium Halodule uninervis, Halodule wrightii (family Cymodoceaceae ), Halophila ovalis (Hydrocharitaceae) and Nanozostera capensis (Zosteraceae).